Stages of Prostate Cancer
Doctors make use of the Gleason score following biopsy and of the the The TMN prostate cancer staging scale to group the stages of prostate cancer. These ranges from stage I through to stage IV. With stage 1 representing the least advance form of cancer and stage 4 the most advanced.
Stage 1 Prostate cancer – stage I
Stage one cancer is usually associate with a TMN score of T1a, M0 and N0, and a Gleason score of 2 to 4.
In this case the cancer is contained within the prostate, and less than 5% of it is affected.
Stage 2 Prostate cancer - stage II
In this case the cancer also has a TMN score of T1a, M0, N0, however the Gleason score is higher in a range of 5 to ten.
This indicates that the cancer is contained within the prostate but that either (I) a transurethral exam indicated that over 5% of the prostate was cancerous. (ii) the cancer can be felt during a DRE [link] or detected by ultrasound. Or (iii) High PSA levels [link] necessitated a needle biopsy that detected the cancer.
Stage 3 Prostate cancer - stage III
The cancer has a TMN score of T3, M0, N0, Gleason score does not matter.
In this case the cancer has spread outside the prostate, and may have entered the seminal vessels. It has not entered the lymph nodes.
Stage 4 Prostate cancer - stage IV
The cancer has a TMN score of T4, M1, or N1, Gleason score is not important.
At this stage the cancer has spread beyond the prostate, depending on the N and M scoring it may or may not have spread into the lymph nodes, bones, or other organs.
It is hoped that you now have a further understanding of how cancer stages are grouped by scale. If there is anything that you are unsure of it is recommended that you contact your doctor, who will know that specifics of your case and will help you with any questions that you may have.