Prostate Cancer Scientific Abstracts - J. Dai

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Selected J. Dai prostate cancer abstracts

Journal: Cancer Research

Pubmed ID: 16166304

Authors: Dai J, Keller J, Zhang J, Lu Y, Yao Z, Keller ET.

Title: Bone morphogenetic protein-6 promotes osteoblastic prostate cancer bone metastases through a dual mechanism.

Prostate cancer frequently metastasizes to bone where it forms osteoblastic lesions through unknown mechanisms. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) are mediators of skeletal formation. Prostate cancer produces a variety of Bone morphogenetic proteinss, including BMP-6. We tested the hypothesis that BMP-6 contributes to prostate cancer-induced osteosclerosis at bone metastatic sites. Prostate cancer cells and clinical tissues produced BMP-6 that increased with aggressiveness of the tumor. Prostate cancer-conditioned medium induced SMAD phosphorylation in the preosteoblast MC3T3 cells, and phosphorylation was diminished by anti-BMP-6 antibody. Prostate cancer-conditioned medium induced mineralization of MC3T3 cells, which was blocked by both the BMP inhibitor noggin and anti-BMP-6. Human fetal bones were implanted in severe combined immunodeficient mice and after 4 weeks, LuCaP 23.1 prostate cancer cells were injected both s.c. and into the bone implants. Anti-BMP-6 or isotype antibody administration was then initiated. Anti-BMP-6 reduced LuCaP 23.1-induced osteoblastic activity, but had no effect on its osteolytic activity. This was associated with increased osteoblast numbers and osteoblast activity based on bone histomorphometric evaluation. As endothelin-1 has been implicated in bone metastases, we measured serum endothelin-1 levels but found they were not different among the treatment groups. In addition to decreased bone production, anti-BMP-6 reduced intraosseous, but not s.c., tumor size. We found that BMP-2, BMP-4, BMP-6, and BMP-7 had no direct effect on prostate cancer cell growth, but BMP-2 and BMP-6 increased the in vitro invasive ability of prostate cancer cell. These data show that prostate cancer promotes osteoblastic activity through BMP-6 and that, in addition to its bone effects, suggest that Bone morphogenetic proteins promote the ability of the prostate cancer cells to invade the bone microenvironment.

Contact: Department of Urology, School of Medicine, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-0940, USA.

Journal: Cancer Research

Pubmed ID: 14871830

Authors: Dai J, Kitagawa Y, Zhang J, Yao Z, Mizokami A, Cheng S, Nor J, McCauley LK, Taichman RS, Keller ET.

Title: Vascular endothelial growth factor contributes to the prostate cancer-induced osteoblast differentiation mediated by bone morphogenetic protein.

Human prostate cancer has a high predisposition to metastasize to bone, resulting in the formation of osteoblastic metastases. The mechanism through which prostate cancer cells promote osteoblastic lesions is undefined. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been implicated as a mediator of osteoblast activity. In the present study, we examined if prostate cancer cells promote osteoblastic activity through VEGF. We found that LNCaP and C4-2B prostate cancer cell lines and primary tumor and metastatic prostate cancer tissues from patients expressed VEGF. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), which are normally present in the bone environment, induced Vascular endothelial growth factor protein and mRNA expression in C4-2B cells. Furthermore, BMP-7 activated the VEGF promoter. Noggin, a BMP inhibitor, diminished VEGF protein expression and promoter activity in C4-2B cells. Conditioned media (CM) from C4-2B cells induced pro-osteoblastic activity (increased alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and mineralization) in osteoblast cells. Both noggin alone and anti-VEGF antibody alone diminished C4-2B CM-induced pro-osteoblastic activity. Transfection of C4-2B cells with VEGF partially rescued the C4-2B CM-induced pro-osteoblastic activity from noggin inhibition. These observations indicate that BMPs promote osteosclerosis through VEGF in prostate cancer metastases. These results suggest a novel function for VEGF in skeletal metastases. Specifically, VEGF promotes osteoblastic lesion formation at prostate cancer bone metastatic sites.

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